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Agustín Barrios
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Paraguayan guitarist and composer, Agustin Barrios.Agustín Pío Barrios (also known as Agustín Barrios Mangoré), an eminent Paraguayan guitarist and composer, was born May 5, 1885, in the department of Misiones, Paraguay and died August 7, 1944 in San Salvador, El Salvador. It has been generally accepted that the guitarist was born in San Juan Bautista in Misiones, however, there is no definitive proof of this as his baptismal document found in the book of registries in the cathedral in San Juan Bautista does not state his precise place of birth. Also, several biographers and authorities present convincing documented evidence that Barrios was born, instead, in the nearby town of Villa Florida, Misiones, situated on the Tebicuary River some 30 km north of San Juan Bautista.

Biography
Early life
When he was a child, Barrios began to develop a love for music and literature, two areas that were very important to his family. Barrios would eventually speak two languages (Spanish and Guarani), and read three more (English, French and German).

Barrios began to show an interest in musical instruments, particularly the guitar, before he reached his teens. He went to Asunción in 1901, at the age of fifteen, to attend a university (Colegio Nacional de Asunción) with a scholarship in music, thus becoming one of the youngest university students in Paraguayan history. Apart from his studies in the college's music department, Barrios was also well appreciated by members of the college's mathematics, journalism and literature departments.

After leaving college, Barrios dedicated his life to music and writing poems. He composed more than 300 songs for which he would first write the lyrics and then the guitar accompaniment. Barrios made several friends during his multiple trips across South America. He was known for giving his friends and fans signed copies of his poems. Because of that, there are several different versions of his poetical works which have surfaced across South America, other areas of Latin America and the United States. Many current collectors warn potential buyers to be careful when they come across a poem reportedly autographed by Barrios.

Career
Barrios was famed for his phenomenal performances, both live and on gramophone recordings — although Barrios is usually credited as the first classical guitarist to make recordings in 1909/10, a myth perpetuated by the guitarist John Williams, the first guitarist to record was the Mexican guitarist Octaviano Yanes performing his "Mexican Dance" (Habanera). The record, Victor 05662, is dated August 25, 1908. Another version of this piece exists on Edison Foreign Series cylinder (catalogue number 20204). For some years, it was Barrios's habit to perform in concert in traditional Paraguayan dress (he was partly of Guarani origin), assuming the persona of Nitsuga Mangoré (Nitsuga being Agustín spelled backwards).

His works were largely late-Romantic in character, despite his having lived well into the twentieth century. Many of them are also adaptations of, or are influenced by, South American and Central American folk music. Very many of them are of a virtuosic nature.

The Bach-inspired La Catedral (1921) is often considered to be his most impressive work, even winning the approval of Andrés Segovia, who said "In 1921 in Buenos Aires, I played at the hall La Argentina noted for its good acoustics for guitar, where Barrios had concertized just weeks before me. He was presented to me by his secretary Elbio Trapani. At my invitation Barrios visited me at the hotel and played for me upon my very own guitar several of his compositions among which the one that really impressed me was a magnificent concert piece The Cathedral whose first movement is an andante, like an introduction and prelude, and a second very virtuosic piece which is ideal for the repertory of any concert guitarist. Barrios had promised to send me immediately a copy of the work (I had ten days remaining before continuing my journey) but I never received a copy."

Death and legacy
Barrios died and was buried in the Cementerio de Los Ilustres in San Salvador, El Salvador on August 7, 1944.

Barrios is still revered in Paraguay, where he is seen as one of the greatest musicians of all time by many. John Williams has said of Barrios: "As a guitarist/composer, Barrios is the best of the lot, regardless of era. His music is better formed, it's more poetic, it's more everything! And it's more of all those things in a timeless way."

Many guitarists have recorded music by Barrios. In 1974, Jesús Benites Reyes (ref), a Peruvian guitarist who lived in Mexico, was the rediscoverer of Barrios and is considered by the Barrios students as "the Last Mangorean". In 2007, a Double Compact Disc with the best of A. Barrios played by Jesus Benites was released only in Mexico and Japan. These recordings, according to students of Barrios, are better and more sensitive than the John Williams interpretations.

Folk music
The folk music of Paraguay (including the polca paraguaya and vals) provided the young Barrios with his first introduction to music. In 1898, Barrios was formally introduced to the classical guitar repertoire by Gustovo Sosa Escalada. At that time, Barrios had already composed works for the guitar, and also performed pieces written by his former teacher Alias, such as La Chinita and La Perezosa. Under the influence of his new teacher, Barrios went on to perform and study the works of Tárrega, Vinas, Sor and Aguado. Sosa Escalada was so impressed with his new pupil that he convinced Barrios's parents to let him move to Asunción to continue his education. Having already surpassed the technical and performing abilities of most guitarists, Barrios began seriously to compose around 1905.

Among the folkloric influences, Barrios is know to have played such popular paraguayan works as "Campamento Cerro León", "Londón Carapé", "Guyrá campana", "Mamá Cumandá" . As an example, "Guyrá campana" is very interesting, since some of the material can be heard in parts of Barrios' recording of "Caazapá - Aire Popular Paraguayo"… Though "Guyrá campana" is traditional music, many maintain that it is very closely related to guitarist Carlos Talavera 1 (from Caazapá), whom Barrios knew.There are various versions of "Guyrá campana" (it is also known as "Pájaro campana") e.g. for Paraguayan Harp (Félix Pérez Cardozo), etc.; and in some versions, the birdsong imitations can be very clearly heard.

Composing
Barrios's compositions can be divided into three basic categories: folkloric, imitative and religious. Barrios paid tribute to the music and people of his native land by composing pieces modeled after folk songs from South America and Central America. Imitating the compositional style and techniques of the Baroque and Romantic periods was another side to his craftsmanship. La Catedral may be viewed as Barrios' tribute to Bach. It is believed that La Catedral was inspired by a religious experience for Barrios; therefore, the piece may also be categorized under religion. Religious beliefs and experiences also played an important role in Barrios' compositional process. Una Limosna por el Amor de Dios (Alms for the Love of God) is another example of a religiously-inspired work. Breaking down the works of Barrios into these three categories helps the guitar enthusiast to understand Barrios's musical intent.

Discography
Agustin Barrios The Complete Guitar Recordings 1913-1942. This 3 CD set was transferred and digitally remastered from 78rpm gramophone recording from Atlanta, Odeon, Artigas labels and some Barrios' personal home recordings. Chanterelle Verlag, CHR002
"Le incisioni discografiche di Agustín Barrios"

List of works
Agustín Barrios composed more than three hundred pieces in his lifetime. The more outstanding pieces in his repertoire are the following:

Aconquija
Allegro Sinfónico
Chôro da saudade
Cueca
Danza Paraguaya
Estudio de Concierto
Jha, Che Valle
Julia Florida
Las Abejas
La Catedral
London Karape
Madrigal-Gavota
Maxixa
Mazurka Apasionata
Preludio
Sueño de la muñequita
Un sueño en la Floresta
Una limosnita por amor de Dios (Also known as "El ultimo trémolo" or "El último canto")
Vals no 3
Vals no 4
Vidalita
Danza Guaraní
He also wrote a few poems:

Mi Guitarra
El Bohemio

Bibliography
El Inalcanzable Agustín Barrios Mangoré (289 pages, 2007) by Carlos Salcedo Centurion. (Centro Cultural de la República, El Cabildo, ref)
Six Silver Moonbeams: The Life and Times of Agustin Barrios Mangoré, Richard D. Stover (GSP, 210)
Mangoré: Vida y Obra de Agustín Barrios, Sila Godoy, Luis Szarán, Editorial Don Bosco/ Ñanduti Vive. Asunción, Paraguay.
Dos almas musicales: Agustín Pío Barrios y José del Rosario Diarte, Nicolás T. Riveros, Asunción, Paraguay

References
^ "Classic Record Collector", Autumn 2002
^ "Golden Era 63 Early Classical Guitar Solos 1908-1955 CD". Fine Fretted String Instruments. http://www.finefretted.com/html/golden_era_cds_for_sale_g_e_63.html.
^ Silla Godoy and Luis Szaran, "Mangore, Vida Y Obra De Agustin Barrios", Paraguay, Editorial Nanduti, 1994, pp. 40-48
^ "Personalidad de Agustín Pío Barrios "Mangoré"". http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/sesiones/AccesoSesiones.asp?Url=/sesiones/diarios/camara/html/20031111d0067.htm.
^ Miguel Ángel Pangrazio. "Carlos Talavera". http://www.musicaparaguaya.org.py/profundo21.htm.
^ Alcibiades González Delvalle. "El Guyra Campana". http://www.musicaparaguaya.org.py/profundo9.htm.
^ Mario Rubén Álvarez. "Guyra Campana". http://www.musicaparaguaya.org.py/profundo38.html.
^ a b "Félix Pérez Cardozo". http://www.musicaparaguaya.org.py/felix.html.
^ "Violeta Rivas - Pájaro campana". http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F962a8a-qkE.

See also
List of Paraguayans

External links
Archivo Paraguayo de la Música "Agustín Pío Barrios" Centro Cultural de la República, El Cabildo (Asunción, Paraguay)

Biography
An extensive biography (www.guitar-moonbeams.com by Pablo )
Biography Diccionario de la Música en el Paraguay, by Luis Szarán (Spanish)
Pagina Cultural del Paraguay: Breve Recordacion a Mangore (www.musicaparaguaya.org.py) (Spanish)
Agustín Barrios Mangoré: The Folkloric, Imitative, and the Religious Influence Behind His Compositions

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