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Alfredo da Rocha Viana, Jr, better known as Pixinguinha (1897-1973) was a Brazilian composer, arranger, flautist, and saxophonist.

Born in Rio de Janeiro on 23rd April 1897, Pixinguinha is considered one of the greatest Brazilian composers of popular music, particularly within the genre of music known as . By integrating the music of the older choro composers of the nineteenth century with contemporary jazz-like harmonies, Afro-Brazilian rhythms, and sophisticated arrangements, he introduced choro to a new audience and helped to popularise it as a uniquely Brazilian genre. He was also one of the first Brazilian musicians and composers to take advantage of the new professional opportunities offered to musicians by the new technologies of radio broadcasting and studio recording. Pixinguinha composed dozens of choros, including some of the best-known works in the genre such as "Carinhoso", "Glória", "Lamento", and "Um a Zero".

Pixinguinha died on 7th February 1973 in the Church of Nossa Senhora da Paz in Ipanema while attending a baptism. He was buried in the Cemitério de Inhaúma. His birthday is today commemorated as the National Day of Choro in Brazil. The day was officially established in 2000 after a campaign by bandolim player Hamilton de Holanda and his students at the Raphael Rabello School of Choro.

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