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  • THE HISTORY OF DEVELOPMENT OF AZERBAIJAN MUSIC

    25 Oct 2006, 12:22 by MirAydinKhan

    Azerbaijani music was developing through the centuries. The traces of ancient music of Azerbaijan were found in a number of monuments, excavated in time of archeological digs, as well as in rock carvings of Gobustan (18-3 millennium B.C) and Gemigaya (3-1 millennium B.C). Kitabi Dede Gorgud (8th century), creative works of Nizami, Fizuli provide full coverage of medieval music art, music genres and music instruments. The records of such prominent medieval scientists of Azerbaijan as Sefiaddin Urmevi (18 century), Abdulgadir Maragai (17 century), Mir Movsum Nevvab (19 century) pointed out the highly developed art and culture of music and mastery performance and cited theoretical issues of music in medieval Azerbaijan.

    The first written monument of our country epos Kitabi Dede Gorgut , containing several chapters, related to music and citing the names of different musical instruments, testifies that out music art possesses ancient history.

    Mir Movsum Nevvab Garabagi


    The first book on music dates back to the 13th century. Two prominent scientists and musicians of Azerbaijan Sefieddin Urmevi (1217-1294) and Abdulqadir Maraghai made a great contribution to the development of theory of Near and Middle Eastern music in the 13-15th centuries. Booklets Kitabi el-Edvar and Seferiyye by Urmevi established the science of music of Azerbaijan and laid the foundation for its further development. Urmevi entered the history of Azerbaijan as the founder of the school "System" and tabulator science. The system musical notation, created by Urmevi, was the most perfect system of that period.

    Booklets that followed the creative works of Maragai, did not deal with complex theoretical problems of the theory of Eastern music or in case they dealt, they repeated those of Urmevi, just interpreting them in different ways. The main advantage of these booklets was their practical importance. The creative works of that period include the booklet Negavetil Edvar by the younger son of Maraghai Abdulaziz Chelebi and Megasid el-Edvar by his grandson Mahmud Chelebi.

    A booklet "About Music" by Mirza Bey is one of the interesting works, created in South Azerbaijan in early 17th century.

    Mirza Sadiq (Sadiqdjan)


    Beginning in late 19th century music meetings, associations and circles (by Mahmud Agha in Shamakhy, Kharrat oghly , Mir Movsum Nevvab in Shusha, Meshedi Malik Mansur in Baku). In the 1880th M.M.Nevvab and Hadjy Husu organized meetings of Musicians, which were dedicated to discussion of esthetic problems of music, mastery performance and mugam . Meetings were attended by famous singers and saz players Meshedi Djemil Amirov, I.Abdullayev, S.Shushinskiy, Sadykhdjan and others.

    Hadji Husu, progeny of Kharrat Gulu, is one of the great representatives of vocalism of Shusha. He studied mugam , improved a number of them and created new mugam s. Mirza Sadyg Esed ogly was a maestro of tar of the 19th century, he reconstructed tar and created the tar of modern type. Meshedi Zeynal , Meshedi Djamil Amirov, Shirin Akhundov, Gurban Primov were all representatives of this art.

    Meshedi Djamil Amirov


    There are a number of cities in the world, which absorbed music by its stones, tower and its atmosphere. These are Vienna (Austria), Neapol (Italy) and Shusha (Karabakh, Azerbaijan). There exist a popular saying that infants in Shusha even cry under the music of mugam.

    Prominent representatives of the Shusha Caucasus Conservatoire successfully represented Azeri music and glorified it all over the world.

    Cabbar Qaryaghdi oglu


    Shusha is the home of Mir Movsum Nevvab, Kharrat Gulu, Hadjy Husu, Sadikhdjan, Meshedi Isi, Abdulbaghy Zulalov, Djabbar Qaryaghdyoglu, Kechedji ogly Memmed, Meshedi Memmed Ferzeliyev, Islam Abdullayev, Seyid Shushinskiy, Bulbul, Zulfi Adygozelov, Khan Shushinskiy, Meshedi Djamil Amirov, Qurban Pirimov, composers Uzeyir Hadjybeyov, Zulfugar Hadjybeyov, Fikret Amirov, Niyazi, Afrasiyab Bedelbeyli, Soltan Hadjibeyov, Ashraf Abbasov, Suleyman Aleskerov, and singer Rashid Behbudov. Yet this list is not a complete list of musicians of Shusha.

    In the early 20th century, in the atmosphere of socio-economic and cultural growth, U.Hadjibeyov laid the foundation of the culture of modern professional music of Azerbaijan and created a synthesis of composer creations and folklore music. That caused the interference of Western and Eastern cultures. In 1908 U.Hadjibeyov staged the opera "Leyli and Medjnun" at the theater of H.Z.Tagiyev, thus, laying the foundation of opera not only in Azerbaijan but in the entire Muslim East and became the founder of the genre of mugam -opera. Realizing that the new genre will be difficult to comprehend, U.Hadjibeyov, referring to the poem by Fuzuli "Leyli and Medjnun" and genres of folklore music, created a stage work, corresponding to the spirit of that period and moral needs of people

    Uzeyir Hadjibeyov


    U.Hadjibeyov is also the founder of musical comedy in Azerbaijan. Musical comedies of social character ("Husband and Wife", 1910, "Either this or that, 1911, Arshyn Mal Alan, 1913) based on composed folklore songs and dance music. His musical comedy Arshyn Mal Alan (staged in 1913) was a great success.

    The comedy was translated into English, German, Chinese, Arabic, Persian, Polish, Ukrainian, Belarus, Georgian and other languages (nearly 70 languages), staged in 120 theater in Moscow, Istanbul, New-York, Paris, London, Teheran, Cairo, Beijing, Berlin, Warsaw, Sofia, Budapest, Bucharest and other cities and repeatedly put on screen (in Baku, 1916-1917, in USA in the 1930th, in Soviet Azerbaijan, in 1945 and 1960). With Rashid Behbutov (1915-1989), playing the principal role, the opera gained worldwide popularity. The popular actor of the USSR R.Behbudov sang folklore and composed songs, played the role of Balash of the opera Sevil by F.Amirov. He was also the founder and leader of the theater "Mahny"

    Opera "Either this or that" by U.Hadjibeyov, was put on screen in Yalta in 1919 and for the second time it was put on film a the film studio Azerbaijanfilm in 1956.

    Muslim Magomayev


    The 1930th were marked by the rise in Azerbaijan music. That period accounted for the establishment of collectives, symphonic orchestras (1920, at present Azerbaijan State Symphonic orchastra after U.Hadjibeyov), chorus (1926), Orchestra of Folklore musical instruments (1931), dance ensemble (1926), Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society (1936), Azerbaijan Union of Composers (1934), Musical Comedy Theater (1938, now after Sh. Gurbanov), as well as the scientific research office of music (1931) under the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire to study and propagandize the folklore music of Azerbaijan.

    In the 1920th R.M. Gliyer created the opera Shahsenem (staged in 1927) based on the epos Ashyg Garib, using the folklore music of Azerbaijan. The opera strengthening the achievements of world music was the first initiative to create opera on the basis of patterns of Azeri folklore music.

    U.Hadjibeyov is also the author of the popular heroic epopee "Koroglu" (received the USSR state award in 1941). The opera, marked for its innovative ideas, reflected the national spirit and psychological profundity. U.Hadjibeyov attaining the harmony of genre composition of folklore music, intonation devices and expressive means of opera music created masterpieces of national opera. The opera includes scenes of people's life and deep characters of main heroes. The role of Bulbul was played by Koroghlu over 400 times.

    Bulbul (Murtuza Mammedov)


    1920th -1940th are marked by the appearance of new composers.

    In the early 1930th works (the first and the second fantasy by U.Hadjibeyov) are written for symphonic orchestras (Solemn march of U.Hadjibeyov, "In the streets of Azerbaijan", "Dance of free woman", "March of Azerbaijani march RV-8 of Muslim Magomayev) and folklore musical instruments

    The theme of patriotism and heroism, which rose from the war of 1941-1945 , was reflected in songs, in compositions for folklore musical instruments (by U.Hadjibeyov, S.Rustemov), in the opera "Motherland" by G.Garayev and C.Hadjiyev (presented the USSR State award in 1946_, the first symphony by Dj.Hadjiyev, G.Garayev and S.Hadjibeyov (first creations of the symphonic genre of Azeri music). The opera "Khosrov and Shirin" by Niyazi (1942), romantic ghazals by U.Hadjibeyov "Without you" and "Sweetheart" were also the creative works of the period of war. The founder of new genre of ghazal U.Hadjibeyov created the synthesis of declamation, turned into the language of music and melodies of cantilena type using the poetry and speech with a great mastery. The entire music achieved a great progress through the year of the Great Patriotic War.

    In the post war period the national music experiences new growth. The music of Azerbaijan was the success not only in our country but also in the countries abroad.

    The ballet "Seven Beauties" by Gara Garayev (1952, based on the analogous poem by Nizami, choreograph P.A.Gusev, Azerbaijan Theater of Opera and Ballet) opened a new stage in the history of Azeri music. The ballet "Seven Beauties" played a critical role in the development of ballet in Azerbaijan as it founded the new musical dramaturgy in the ballet art of Azerbaijan.

    Gara Garayev


    The ballet "The path of thunder" by U.Hadjibeyov was staged in the Theater of Ballet and Opera of Leningrad in 1958 (Lenin's award in 1967, based on the analogous novel by P.Abrahams, choreograph-K.M.Sergeyev). The author, bringing the tragic love of a main character to a sharp conflict, created a modern play specific from the point of view of its musical composition. The play combines a clear musical concept, brilliant characters and folklore music of the South Africa.

    S.Hadjibeyov created the ballet "Gulshen" (1950, the state award of the USSR, 1952), which reflected contemporary life. Operettas "Gozun Aydyn" by F.Amirov (1946), "The crane" by S.Rustamov (1947), "Ulduz" (1948) are the examples of thes janre.

    In the 1950th the symphonic music was marked for a particular rise. Urgent socio-political problems of that period were reflected in various symphonic creations of composers. F.Amirov entered the history as the founder of a unique genre of symphonic mugam . The composer developed the theme, momentum and other stylistic peculiarities of mugam from the symphonic point of view. Vividness of the play of orchestra, genre diversity and profundity of characters, peculiar of Amirov's symphonic creations, were reflected in different works of that period.

    Fikret Amirov


    The symphonic art of Dj.Hadjibeyov was marked by the profundity of psychological ideas of its characters, the sharp dramatic development of music, the epic nature of its melodic. A number of symphonic compositions of S. Hadjibeyov (his second symphony, 1946) fully covered the theme of the Great Patriotic War, while the music of his other creations were decorated with vivid colors of the genre.

    Dj.Djahangirov mainly created vocal-symphonic compositions (the poem "On the other side of Aras" , the state award of the USSR in 1950, the cantata "Fuzuli"). The vocal-symphonic poem "On the other side of Aras" was a new genre, which combined both symphonic and cantata-oratorical features of music. The rise in song genre was closely connected with the creative activity of S.Rustamov, T.Guliyev, R.Hadjiyev, Dj.Djahangirov, G.Huseynli, A.Rzayeva. At that time a number of songs were written to films and drama plays and the art pf performance was also widely spread. The first state string quartet (A.Aliyev, M.Taghiyev, R.Seyidzade, S.Aliyev, winners of international contest (1957, Moscow) of the sixth world festival ) was established in 1957. The new generation of singers included the popular singer of the USSR F.Ahmedova, ballerina L.Vekilova, honoured worker of fine arts Dj. Hadjibeyov (conductor), etc. The first session of the Union of Composers of Azerbaijan (beginning from 1990-called the Union of Composers and Musicians of Azerbaijan) took place in 1956.

    Soltan Hadjibeyov


    The 196oth 1980th were marked by creative activity of elder generation of composers, the appearance of new composers, significant progress in all genres and expansion of international contacts.

    Composers of Azerbaijan frequently addressed to opera and ballet in their creative activity. Ballets "The legend of one love" (1961) by A.Melikov, "Epos about Nasimi" (1973 The State award of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1974) and "One thousand and one night" by Fikret Amirov (1979; the state award of the USSR in 1980) are famous worldwide.

    Symphonic and chamber music of Azeri composers began to spread in the countries abroad. Symphonic Mugams by F.Amirov "Shur" and "Kurd ovshani", by Nizami "Rast" as well as symphonic compositions by G.Garayev and U.Hadjibeyov were introduced in different countries and received high appreciation. Compositions by A.Melikov, Kh. Mirzazade, A.Alizade, F.Alizade, F.Garayev, Dj.Guliyev, etc gained success in Europe, America and Asia. Singers from Azerbaijan frequently go on tour to foreign countries.

    Rashid Behbudov


    Popular singers R.Bahbutov, Niyazi, Z.Khanlarova, M.Magomayev. etc were widely reknowned. Singers as F.Gasymova (1977, Italy, the first place), Kh.Gasymova (1981, Athens, the first place; the second prize of the eighth international competition after P.I.Chaikovcky (Moscow, 1982), pianist F.Bedelbeyli (1967, Gradets-Kralove, CSSR, 1968, Lisbon, Portugal, the first prize), young pianists M.Guseynov, M.Adygozelzade etc. were the winners of various competitions.

    Such contemporary conductors as R.Abdullayev, Dj.Djafarov, Y.Adygozelov, T.Goychayev, G.Imanov, R.Mustafayev, N.Azimov made the creations of composers clear to the audience and propagandized them.

    The list of art workers, who contributed to the preservation and development of the traditions of mugam and folklore art includes popular singers Kh.Shushinsky, R.Muradova, Sh.Alekperova, A.Aliyev, S.Gadimova, F.Mehreliyeva, T.Ismailova, A.Babayev, I.Rzayev, honoured singers Z.Adigozelov, H.Guseynov, Q.Rustamov, C.Akberov, A.Qasimov, popular players of tar A. Bakikhanov, H.Mamedov, B.Mansurov, A.Quliyev, R.Quliyev, honored figures A. Dadasov, M.Muradov, F.Alekberov, popular kamancha player H.Aliyev, honored kamancha players H.Mirzaliyev, T.Bakikhanov, Sh. Eyvazova, F.Dadashov, honored drummer Ch.Mehdiyev, accordion players Abutalib (A.Yusifov), Kor Akhad, Kerbelayi Letif, T.Demirov, A.Israfilov, saz players A.Nasibov, etc.

    Tofiq Guliyev


    Pop and jazz music of Azerbaijan are developing successfully as well. T.Guliyev, R.Hadjiyev create compositions for the State Jazz Orchestra of Azerbaijan (art director Niyazi, music director -T.Guliyev), established in 1941. P.Rustembeyov (saxophone), A.Bunyadzade, D.Baghyrzade, etc were the first performers of the orchestra. The State Variety Show Orchestra of Azerbaijan (1956, art director R.Hadjiyev), pop ensemble "we are from Baku (1957), Pop orchestra of the Azerbaijan Television and broadcasting (1960, art director and conductor T.Ahmedov), quartet "Gaya" (1960, later vocal ensemble, art director T.Mirzayev), Azerbaijan State Theater of Songs (1966, art director and soloist R.Behbudov), Azerbaijan State Pop and Symphonic Orchestra (1975, art director and soloist-M.Magomayev) were established and played a critical role in the development of pop music of Azerbaijan. In the postwar period opera singers (R.Atakishiyev, L.Imanov) had a great impact on the improvement of pop art in Azerbaijan. The creative activity of R.Behbudov and M.Magomayev added to the pop art of the country.

    Popular artists Sh.Alekperova, G.Mamedov, M.Babayev, F.Kerimova, E.Rehimova, Y.Rzazade, G.Agayev, I.Guliyeva, honored artist A.Ganiyev as well as H.Hadiyeva, A.Islamzade and others took an active part in the propaganda of pop songs.

    Vagif Mustafazade


    Mustafazade made a great contribution to the development to jazz music of Azerbaijan. He was the founder and the leader of ensembles "Sevil" and "Mugam " and took the first place in the eighth International jazz contest (Monte-Carlo, 1978). R.Babayev, V.Sadigov, A.Guseynov, Dj.Zeynalli, A.Mustafazade and other performers of jazz are also well-known.

    In the current political situation compositions under the constant thread of war on the issue of war in Karabakh, glorifying Motherland, urging to defend it from the enemy account for the most part of contemporary art of music.

    These include the oratorios "Garabag Shikeste" and " Caravan of grief"(1999) by V.Adygozelov , the symphony "Cry of Garabagh" (2001) by T.Bakikhanov, the ode "Motherland" (1993) by A.Alizade, the seventh symphony by N.Mamedov, dedicated to the Hodjaly tragedy (1998), the cantata "Azerbaijan, you are right" (1992), the poem by H.Khanmemmedov "My saz is crying", written for folklore musical instruments (devoted to martyrs of Karabakh, 1991), the cantata "Martyrs of my land" {1990) and "I miss you, Shusha" (1999), by S.Ibrahimova, created for tar and string orchestras, etc.

    The ballet "Trip to the Caucasus" by A.Alizade, based on the creation of A.Dyuma, was staged in 2002. The one-act ballet by T.Bakikhanov "Good and evil" (1990), ballets "Sheykh Senan" by H.Mamedov, "Alibaba and forty robbers" (1990) were created at that period.

    In the period of independence composers of Azerbaijan take part in different music festivals, international contests, world cultural and musical projects , represent Azeri music abroad, thus introducing it worldwide.

    Creations of A.Melikov, V.Adygozelov, Kh.Mirzazade, A.Alizade, T.Bakikhanov, F.Garayev, I. Hadjibeyov, F.Alizade, Dj.Guliyev, E.Dadashva, R.Gasanova, G.Mamedov, F.Guseynov were introduced in Turkey, Norway, Holland, Cyprus, USA, Switzerland, Germany, Tailand and other countries and won the first prizes in influential competitions. The first nights of compositions by A.Melikov (Symphony No 7), V.Adygozelov (the oratorio "Chanaggala") were held in Turkey, while creative works by T.Bakikhanov ("Seasons of North Cyprus", "The suite of North Cyprus") were first introduced in Cyprus. Compositions by F. Garayev ("Khutbe, Mugam , Sure", "The disaster of Babil", 2000), F. Alizade ("Mirage"), R.Gasanova ("The Sky") were performed in Holland. The participation of F.Alizade ("Dervish") and Dj.Guliyev ("The Caravan") in the Silk Road was a success. F.Guseynov won the first place in a contest, held by UNESCO and Japan (the Concerto for a symphonic orchestra "A trip across time") and was also presented the UN award for his oratorio "Let it be piece in the world".

    The professional performer of mugam A.Gasymov was conferred the gold medal of UNESCO for his contribution to the development and perfection of art of mugam in 1999.

    Compositions of U.Hadjibeyov, G.Garayev and F.Amirov were successfully performed by the Azerbaijan State Symphonic Orchestra (art director and conductor-popular art worker R.Abdullayev) at an international festival, held in France. The brilliant performance of the Azerbaijan State Chamber Orchestra, State Dance Ensemble and a group of art workers at the International Exhibition "Expo-2000", held in Germany, was in the limelight of that period.

    The first night of the opera "Khan qizy Natavan" (December, 2003) by V. Adygozelov, devoted to the poetess of Azerbaijan Natavan, was held in 2003. This creation of the prominent composer occupied a fitting place in the history of development of national opera.

    Rich music of Azerbaijan is at a new stage of development. We expect it to attain new progress, to create perfect compositions and brilliant talents.
  • PROMINENT FIGURES OF AZEBAIJAN MUSIC

    25 Oct 2006, 11:25 by MirAydinKhan

    Mir Movsum Nevvab Garabagi (1833-1918)
    He was a poet, painter, calligraph and musicologist. He created the tractate "Vuzuh ul-ergam" ("Definition of figures", 1884) as a practical means for those willing to study and perform mugam.. The composition provided information on the main mugams of that period, theoretical rules of creating mugam songs, ways of their performance, and attitude to texts of poems. The tractate as the first published creation of Azeri music and valuable historical document testifies the high level of development of the culture of folklore music in Azerbaijan in the 19th century.

    Mirza Sadiq (Sadiqdjan) (1846-1902)
    The tar player. He was the famous tar player in the Caucasus and Iran. He improved the design of tar, through increasing the number of tiny tune strings from 5 to 11.
    Sadiqdjan was the first to play tar on the breast (the tar was previously played at a face)
    The very tar, improved by him was widely spread in the Caucasus and Central Asia and became the symbol of music in Azerbaijan

    Cabbar Qaryaghdi oglu (31.03.1861-20.04.1944)
    Was the singer, composer and worker of the art of music. He became the popular artist of Azerbaijan in 1935 and was one of the prominent figures of the profession of a singer in Azerbaijan.
    He participated in concerts and meetings along with the tar players Sadygdjan, Mirza Faradj and kamancha player Meshedi Gulu. In 1905 he created trio with the tar player G.Pirimov and kamancha player S. Oganezashvili. By an invitation of stock companies "Gramophone", "Sport-Record" and "Extraphone" he recorded his voice on a gramophone in Kiev, Moscow and Warsaw in 1906-1912.

    Kechechi oghlu Mehemmed (18.07.1864-20.11.1940)
    He was a singer. He obtained the profession of singing in the school school of Kharrat Gulu and Meshedi Isi in Shusha.
    He performed the mugam "Bayatiqachar" perfectly and in a most original way. A number of mugams, tasnif and folklore songs, performed by Mehemmed, were recorded on gramophone by companies "Sport-Record" (Warsaw) and "Extraphone" (Kiev). In 1926 U.Hadjibeyov invited him to the Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society and trained young singers.

    Meshedi Mamed Farzaliyev (1872-1962)
    Singer. He was a singer with a voice of great compass and performed high and low notes on the same level.
    He delivered concerts in the Caucasus, Central Asia and in a number of European countries as well as in Turkey.
    He performed the mugams "Bayaty-kurd", "Shushter", "Djahargah" , "Heyraty", "Garabag shikestesi", etc in the most specific way. Companies "Sportrecord" (Warsaw) and "Extraphone" recorded nearly 40 mugams, tesnif and folklore songs, performed by M.M.Farzaliyev in 1912-1915.

    Meshedi Djamil Amirov (1875-1928)
    He was the tar player, composer and worker of art of music. Folklore songs and mugams, performed by M.S.Amirov together with other musicians of Azerbaijan, were recorded by the company "Gramophone" in Riga in 1910.
    Amirov obtained musical education in Istanbul in 1911-1912 and there he wrote the mugam "Heyrat" in notes and published it.
    He was the author of the opera "Seyfelmulk" (1915) and musical drama "An honest girl" (1923). He is the father of Fikret Amirov.

    Islam Abdullayev (1876-22.09.1964)
    Singer and the honored artist of Azerbaijan (1949). Islam Abdullayev was the progeny of Mir Mohsun Nevvab.
    He performed such mugams as "Segah", "Bayaty-kurd", "Bayaty-gachar" etc. He hold the post of the director of a music school in Shusha.
    He established an orchestra of folklore musical instruments in Ganja and was a music tutor in Aghdam.

    Guseynqulu Sarabski (20.03.1879-16.02.1945)
    Guseyngulu Sarabski was a singer (lyric tenor), actor, director, teacher and theater worker. He became the honored artist of Azerbaijan in 1932.
    He was one of the founders of the theater of professional music in Azerbaijan. He was also the creator and the soloist of "The muslim opera troupe" under the society "Nidjat" in 1908. He was on of the best performers of such characters as Medjnun ("Leyli and Medjnun"), Kerem ("Asli and Kerem"), Sheikh Senan ("Sheikh Senan"), Server ("Either this or that"), Shah Ismail, etc.

    Gurban Pirimov (1880- 29.08.1965)
    Gurban Pirimov was a tar player. He deserved the title of the popular artist of Azerbaijan in 1931. He was the progeny of Sadiqdjan, the creator of the modern tar.
    In 1905 he created the musical trio together with Dj. Garyaghdy and S. Oganezashvili. He performed the solo part of the opera "Leyli and Medjnun" by U.Hadjibeyov during its first night. In 1908
    Mugams, performed by G.Pirimov were recorded by the company "Sport-Record" in Warsaw in 1912.

    Zulfugar Hadjibeyov (17.04.1884-30.09.1950)
    The composer and the honored art worker of Azerbaijan (1943). He was one of the founders of the Azerbaijan Theater of Musical Comedy.
    Zulfugar Hadjibeyov was the author of the musical comedies "Young at the age of fifty" (1909), "A woman of eleven" (1911), "A married bachelor" (1911), and the opera "Ashyg Gerib" (1915).
    He composed music to the first sound-films of Azerbaijan "Almas" (1967) (together with Niyazi). Niyazi's father was the composer and conductor.

    Uzeyir Hadjibeyov (18.09.1885-23.11.1948)
    Uzeyir Hadjibeyov was a prominent composer, musicologist, scientist and tutor. He was also the founder of professional music and national opera in Azerbaijan
    Uzeyir Hadjibeyov was the popular artist of the USSR (1938), the president of the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (1928-1929, 1939-1948). He created seven operas, including "Leyli and Medjnun" (1908) and "Koroglu" (1937), three musical comedies, cantatas, overtures, romances and songs and the National Anthem of the Republic of Azerbaijan (1918). He was also the author of the research scientific work "Fundamentals of the folklore music of Azerbaijan (1945).

    Muslim Magomayev (18.09.1885 - 28.07.1937)
    Muslim Magomayev was a composer, conductor, tutor, folklorist and social worker and the worker of the art of music. He deserved the title of the honored artist in 1936.
    Muslim Magomayev was one of the founders of the theater of professional music of Azerbaijan. He started his career of an opera conductor in 1912 and was the author of the operas "Shah Ismayil"(1916) and "Nargiz" (1935).
    The first collection of the folklore songs of Azeri Turks, edited by M.Magomayev, was published in 1927 (written and worked out by U.Hadjibeyov).

    Mansur Mansurov (Mirza Mansur) (1887 - 30.06.1967)
    Mansur Mansurov was a tar player, tutor and worker of the art of music. He deserved the title of the honored artist of Azerbaijan in 1940.
    Mansur Mansurov followed the way of Sadigdjan. He was a skillful performer of a collection of mugam ("Rast", "Shur", "Segah", "Mahurhindi"etc.) and a theorist of mugam. Mugams "Rast", "Zabul", "Dugah" , performed by Mansur Mansurov, were written down in notes in 1936.
    He was the first to compile the curriculum of Mugamat.

    Ahmed Bakikhanov (05.09.1892-26.031973)
    Akhmed Bakikhanov was a tar player, tutor and the worker of the art of music. He deserved the title of the honored teacher of Azerbaijan in 1943 and the popular artist of Azerbaijan in 1973.
    He worked a teacher at the State Conservatoire of Azerbaijan (1929-1973), and was the founder and director (1941-1973)
    Ahmed Bakikhanov was the author of such works as "The Rhythmical Mugams of Azerbaijan" (1968), "Mugam, songs and color" (1975). He included tar, saz, ud, canon, double drums as well as oboe and fortepiano into the ensemble.

    Xadidja Qayibova (24.05.1893 - 27.10.1938)
    She was one of the first female pianist of Azerbaijan. She graduated from special training fortepiano courses of maiden college in Tbilisi. Residing in Baku since 1919, she founded and headed short-term training courses of Eastern music under the educational office of Azerbaijan, aiming to train professional teachers in 1920. She also created extra courses for women and was famous as a first performer of mugam on piano.
    In period of Stalion's repressions she was detained and arrested in 1933. KH.Gayibova, detained for three months, was brought to trial then again arrested as a Turkish spy and antirevolutionary activist and shot in 1938. As stated in verdict, strong willed Khadidja courageously plead not guilty. She was acquitted in 1954.

    Khurshid Qadjar (1894 - 1963)
    Khurshid Gadjar was a singer and honored artist of Azerbaijan. She was the first woman to receive a vocal education abroad, i.e at the Moscow Conservatoire in 1915. She worked at the Theater of Opera and Ballet in 1919-1924. Kh.Qadjar played the role of Gulnaz of the opera by U.Hadjibeyov "O olmasyn, bu olsun" ("No matter this or that" and the role of Gulzar of the opera by M.Magomayev "Shah Ismayil" He made a great contribution to the development of the culture of music
    In 1935 yearly courses were established in the Theater of Opera and Kh.Qachar was appointed the director of these courses.

    Shovkat Mamedova (18.04.1897 - 08.06.1981)
    She was the first professional female singer (lyrical coloratura soprano) She deserved the title of the popular artist of USSR in 1938. She finished a musical school in Tbilisi in 1910 and left for Milan to continue education (1911) and there she was trained by the famous singer D.Ambrozio. Till the 1920th female roles had been played either by men or non muslim women. Shovket was the first Muslim woman who dared to appear before a large audience (1914) thus putting her own life at stake. In 1923 she initiated the Technical College of the Baku Theater and was its director as well as the head of the note printing house.
    She played parts of Rozina ("Sevilian Barber ", Dj.Rossini), Lacme ("Lacme", L.Delib), Djilda ("Rigoletto" Dj.Verdi), Shahsenem ("Shahsenem" R.Qlier), Nargiz ("Nargiz", M.Magomayev), Gulchoyre ("Arshyn Mal Alan", Uzeyir Hadjibeyov) and other parts, which opened a new stage in the history of the opera of Azerbaijan.

    Bulbul (Murtuza Mammedov) (22.06.1897 - 26.09.1961)
    He was a great singer (lyrical-dramatic tenor) and a teacher. He got his education at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (1921-1927) and Italy (1927-1931)
    He synthesized the best traditions of the profession of the folklore singing of Azerbaijan and Russian and European schools of singing.
    The singer took part in operas "Aleko", "Toska", "Rigoletto", "koroghlu", etc.

    Zulfi (Zulfuqar) Adigozelov (1898-31.05.1963)
    He was the singer and honored artist of Azerbaijan (1943). He started his career in 1927.
    S.Garabagly played an important role in Z. Adigozelov's development as a singer. Beginning from 1936 he was the soloist of the Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Office.
    He also worked with the theater of Opera and Ballet of Azerbaijan and played the part of Medjnun's father ("Leyli and Medjnun" Uzeyir Hadjibeyov) and other parts.

    Guseynaga Hadjibababekov (19.05.1898-10.11.1972)
    He was a singer (Lyrical tenor), the popular artist of Azerbaijan (1938). He graduated from the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire. He played female parts of the first mugam operas in 1916.
    He was the soloist of the Azerbaijan State Theater of opera and ballet and performed the parts of Medjnun ("Leyli and Medjnun", U. Hadjybeyov), Shah Ismail ("Shah Ismail", M.Magomayev), Garib ("Ashiq Qarib", Z.Hadj?beyov), ("Xosrov and Shirin", Niyazi) and also appeared in operas by European composers.

    Khan Shushinski (Isfendiyar Djavanshir) (20.08.1901-18.03.1979)
    Khan Shushinski was a singer and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1943). He was famous for an exclusive talent and as a singer with a voice of wide compass and highly developed style of performance
    Such mugams as "The segah of Mirza Guseyn", "Shahnaz", "The shikeste of Garabag", "Kurd-shahnaz", "Rast", "Bayaty-Shiraz", "Gatar", "Djahargah", "Mahur:", "Heyraty", "Shur"played a great role in his career. Khan Shushinski composed songs ("Shushanyn daghlary" (Mountains of Shusha), "Menden gen gezme" ("Don't be far away from me"), "Ay gozel" ("Hey beauty") and tesnifs.

    Yaver Kelenterli (26.03.1902-05.02.1979)
    She was a singer and the honored artist of Azerbaijan. (1959).
    Yaver Kelenterli was a skillful performer of mugams, tesnifs and folklore songs and the soloist of the Azerbaijan Radio and the Azerbaijan State Theater of Opera and Ballet.
    She played the parts of Leyli's mother ("Leyli and Medjnun", U. Hadjibeyov), Asli ("Asli and Kerem", U Hadjibeyov), Erebzengi ("Shah Ismail", M.Magomayev) , etc.

    Khurshid Aghayeva (20.04.1906 - 03.12.1953)
    The first female musicologist of Azerbaijan and the honored artist of the Azerbaijan Republic (1943). Kh.Aghayev was the daughter of Gasanbay Aghayev the first deputy of the first chairman of the Parliament of the Azerbaijan Republic in 1918-1920. He was send to study at the Institute for the improvement of professional skill of teachers of music in Moscow 1930. Khurshid translated manuals on the theory and history of music into Azeri.
    Beginning from 1940, she had been holding the position of vice-rector of the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire. Kh.Aghayeva was the author of the monograph "U.Hadjibeyov", articles on the music of Azerbaijan, and the work "Centers of musical culture in Azerbaijan in 19th century" (incomplete due to the death of the author).

    Kovkeb Safaraliyeva (03.01.1907 - 27.06.1985)
    Kovbek Safaraliyeva was a pianist, teacher and the popular artist of the Azerbaijan Republic(1972). She graduated from the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire in 1932 and was the professor at that very educational institution. (1952).
    Kovkeb, who made a great contribution to the development of musical education, created a secondary musical school under the Conservatoire (currently a school after BulBul in 1937 and became its director (1937-1952).
    Kovkeb Safaraliyeva created a number of scientific and methodological text-books, complete works for fortepiano and articles about music.

    Afrasiyab Badalbeyli (19.04.1907-06.01.1976)
    Afrasiyab Badalbeyli was a composer, conductor, librettist and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1960).
    He conducted operas and ballets by Azeri, Russian and Western European composers. He was the author of ceremonial march, symphonic poems, operas "Nizami" and "Willows will never weep", and the first ballet in Azerbaijan "Maiden Tower" (1940).
    He composed music to a number of dramatic performances ("Hadji Gara", "In 1905", "Farhad and Shirin", etc).

    Seid Rustamov (12.05.1907-10.06.1983)
    Seid Rustamov was a composer, conductor, teacher and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1957). He graduated from the class of tar of the Baku Musical School
    He was a progeny of U.Hadjibeyov and M.Mansurov. He created a specific language of music by using the forms of mugam, ashug music and folklore songs in his creative activity.
    He was the author of a number of songs and musical comedies as "Besh manatlyg gelin" ("Cheap bride") (1939), "Durna" ("A crane", 1947), "Reisin arvady" ("The chief's wife", 1961). Through the period from 1935-1975 was the art director and conductor of the Azerbaijan Orchestra of Folklore Musical Instruments.

    Hagigat Rzayeva (25.05.1907-02.08.1989)
    Hagigat Rzayeva was a singer (soprano), teacher and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1946). She was the first songstress of Azerbaijan to appear on the stage.
    In 1928-1932 she studied at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire, the faculty of mugam and was taught of S.Garyaghdy oghlu and S. Shushinski. Through 1927-1952 she was a soloist of the Theater of Opera and Ballet and became famous as a performer of mugam and folklore songs. She played the parts of Arabzengy ("Shah Ismail", M.Magomayev), Telli ("Arshyn Mal Alan", U.Hadjibeyov), Shahsenem ( "Ashiq Gerib", Z.Hadjibeyov).

    Ashraf Gasanov (24.01.1909-09.08.1983)
    Ashraf Gasanov was a conductor, teacher. He deserved the title of the popular artist of Azerbaijan in 1959. He was the first professional conductor of Azerbaijan.
    He conducted operas and ballets by Azeri and Western European composers in the Azerbaijan State Theater of Opera and Ballet ("Leyli and Medjnun", "Koroglu"( U.Hadjibeyov) "Traviate", "Aida" (Dj.Verdi), "Karmen" (Dj.Bize), etc.
    He was the director of a symphonic orchestra under the Azerbaijan Broadcasting Coucil.

    Asef Zeynalli (05.04.1909-27.10.1932)
    Asef Zeynally was a composer and folklorist. He graduated from the composer's faculty of the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire in 1931
    He entered the history of the Azerbaijan culture of music as a founder of a number of genres (national romance, etc) and author of symphonic, chamber-vocal and instrumental compositions ("Olkem" ("My land"), "Sual" ("Question"), "Seyran" and other romances). His suite "Flaqmentler"("Fragments", 1931) was the first pattern of symphonic music in Azerbaijan.
    "Ushaq Suitasi" ("Children's suite"), composed for fortepiano laid the foundation for nursery music in Azerbaijan. He wrote over 50 folklore songs down in notes.

    Bahram Mansurov (12.02.1911-14.05.1985)
    Bahram Mansurov was a tar player and a popular artist of Azerbaijan 1978. Since 1929 he has been a soloist of the Azerbaijan State Oriental Orchestra later of the Orchestra of Folklore Musical Instruments of the Azerbaijan Radio and the Azerbaijan State Philarmonic Society. He accompanied such singers as Dj. Garyaghdy ogku, H.Sarabski, S. Shushinski.
    Mugams "Chahargah" (1970) and "Rast" (1978) performed by B.Mansurov, were written down in notes, while Bayaty-Shiraz", "Humayun", ":Shur", "Bayaty-Kurd", "Chahargah" were recorded by UNESCO.

    Niyazi Taghyzade - Hadjibeyov (20.08.1912-02.08.1984)
    Niyazi Hadjibeyov was a great conductor, composer and a popular artist of USST (1959. He made a great contribution to the development of the Azerbaijan school of composers was
    He was the art director and conductor of the Azerbaijan State Symphonic Orchestra (with intervals in 1938)
    He created the opera "Khosrov and Shirin" (1942), ballet "Chitra" (1961), "Zagatala suitasi" (1934), "Gaytagy" (1939), "Konsert Valsy" ("Waltz for a concert") and other symphonic compositions.

    Aghabadji Rzayeva (15.12.1912- 04.07.1975)
    Aghabadji Rzayeva was a composer, honored artist of Azerbaijan (1960). She was the first female composer in Azerbaijan
    She graduated from U.Hadjibeyov's class of composition of the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire.
    She was the author of a number of songs and romances, including "Hodjet eleme" (1965, conjointly with I.Guliyev", musical comedies, pieces for the Orchestra of Folklore Musical Instruments and string quartets and seven romances on words by Nasimi, etc.

    Rashid Behbudov (14.12.1915-09.06.1989)
    Rashid Behbudov was a singer (lyrical tenor) and a popular artist of USSR. She was a prominent representative of national vocal and play principal roles in the films "Arshyn Mal Alan", "Sevimli mahni" (" A favorite song"), etc.
    He performed folklore songs of the world nations and of Azeri composers. He played the parts of Balash ("Sevil", F.Amirov), Asker ("Arshyn Mal Alan", U.Hadjibeyov) at the Azerbaijan Theater of Opera.
    The Azerbaijan State Theater of Songs, founded in 1966 by Rashid Behbudov and led by him till the end of his life, currently bears his name.

    Gambar Guseynli (16.04.1916 - 01.08.1961)
    Gambar Guseynli was a composer and an honored artist of Azerbaijan (1961)
    He graduated from the Baku School of Music (composer's class of B.I.Zeydman)
    Gambar Guseynov composed pieces for fortepiano, string quartets, songs and music for dramatic performances and the song "Djudjalarim" famous worldwide.

    Adila Guseyn-zade (28.04.1916)
    Adila Guseynzade was a composer and honored artist of Azerbaijan (1982). She was the first professional composer among women in Azerbaijan.
    A.Guseynzade played the role of Asya in the film, based on operetta by U.Hadjibeyov "Arsyn Mal Alan" (1945). Though chamber music dominated its creative works and vocal compositions, yet she created large-scale compositions as well.
    A.Guseynzade taught talented children the basis of composition at a secondary school of music after BulBul.

    Mariya Titarenko (23.3.1917- 26.09.2002)
    Mariya Titarenko was an opera singer and an honored artist of Azerbaijan (1961). In the years of study at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire she attracted U.Hadjibeyov's attention, who invited her to play the role of Nigar of the opera "Koroghlu".
    Thus, she started to work with the theater of opera in 1943. In 1944 together with the great performer of Koroglu BulBul, she played in this opera, performing the part of Nigar in Azerbaijani language. Titarenko performed 6 roles out of 35 in Azerbaijani language. These are characters of operas "Koroglu", "Azad", "Vagif", "Nizami", "Sevil" and the part of Gulchohre in the screen version of operetta "Arshyn Mal Alan" together with Valida Vezirova (the actress-Leyla Bedirbeyli). The role was performed only by M.Titarenko in the russion version of the operetta.
    She performed principal parts in operas "Faust", "Bohemia", "Lonanta", "Yevgeni Onegin", "Gar qiz", "Maskarad" etc.

    Tofiq Guliyev (07.11.1917- 05.10.2000)
    Tofiq Guliyev was a composer, pianist and one of the founders of the popular music of Azerbaijhan. He graduated from the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (1934-1936) and Moscow State Conservatoire (1951).
    His well-known songs are "Azerbaijan", "Sene de galmaz", "Ilk Bahar" ("Spring") etc.
    Tofiq Guliyev created such operettas for fortepiano as "An actress" (1943), "Gold finders"(1963), "Good morning, Ella".

    Gara Garayev (05.02.1918 -13.05.1982)
    Gara Garayev was a composer, teacher, scientist and publicist. He deserved the title of the honored artist of Azerbaijan in 1959. He was the academician of the Azerbaijan Academy of Science (1959).
    He studied at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (1938), the Conservatoire of Moscow (1946) (D.D. Shostakovich's class).
    He created the ballets "Seven Beauties" (1952), "The path of thunder" (1958), three symphonies, symphonic gravures "Don Kikhot", (1960), "Albanian Rapsody", symphonic poem "Leyli and Medjnun", suite "Vietnam", 24 preludes for fortepiano, sonatas and romances for violin and fortepiano.

    Gulkhar Gasanova (10.12.1918)
    Gulkhar Gasanova was an opera songstress (soprano) and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1982). She started her artistic career with the Azerbaijan Theater of Young Spectators (1936-1942). The further creative activity of this songstress with a melodic voice was connected with the Azerbaijan State Theater of Opera and Ballet. She performed the parts of brilliant women characters.
    She performed such parts as Asli, Songstress ("Asli and Kerem", "Koroglu", U.Hadjibeyov), Shahsenem ("Ashyg Gerib" Z.Hadjibeyov), Teravet ("Bahadur and Sona", S.Alesgerov", Anna ("Maiden rock", Sh.Akhundova) , etc with great professionalism. The peak of her creative activity were the parts of strong and brave Arabzengy ("Shah Ismayil", Muslim Magomayev), Leyli and Leyli's mother ("Leyli and Medjnun", U. Hadibeyov). Giving up her activity at the stage she taught young singers the secrets of this profession at the National Opera of Mugam. She has been conferred with the Honor of Order of the Azerbaijan Republic.

    Soltan Hadjibeyov (08.05.1919 -19.09.1974)
    Soltan Hadjibeyov was a composer and teacher. He deserved the title of a popular artist of USSR in 1873. He got his education at the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire (graduated in 1973). Symphonic genre of music dominates his creative activity.
    The most famous creations of Soltan Hadjibeyov are: ballet "Gulshen" (1950) and symphonic masterpiece "Karavan" (1945).
    He composed musical comedy "Gyzyl Gul" ("A Rose"), nursery opera "Isgender and choban" ("Alexander and a shepherd" ), pieces, romances and songs for orchestra of folklore musical instruments and great symphonic orchestra and music to dramatic plays.

    Lyudmila Karagicheva-Bretanitskaya (19.08.1920)
    She was a musicologist, teacher and honored artist of Azerbaijan (1972), candidate of study of art (1962). She is a prominent figure of the study of art of Azerbaijan. Her scientific work was dedicated to the creative activity of Gara Garayev. Her works "Gara Garayev", "Ballets of Garayev", "Folklore of African music in Garayev's ballet "The path of thunder" and symphonic gravure "Don Kikhot" deserve much attention.
    Her monograph about composer and conductor Niyazi, articles on different issues of Azerbaijani music were also published. She worked with the conservatoire till moving to Moscow (1988).

    Djahangir Djahangirov (20.06.1921- 25.03.1992)
    Djahangir Djahangirov was a composer, teacher, choirmaster and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1963). Genre of chorus music dominated his creative activity.
    He composed vocal-symphonic poem "On the other side of Araz" for soloist, chorus and symphonic orchestras (1949), cantatas "A song about Friendship" (1956), "Fuzuli" (1959), "Nasimi" (1973), oratorios "Sabir" (1962), "Guseyn Djavid-59" (1984), "Great Victory " (1985), operas "Azad" (1957), "Destiny of a singer" (1984), etc.

    Adila Mamedova (22.08.1921)
    A. Mamedova is a prominent musicologist, teacher, social figure, popular artist of USSR, the investigator of the creative activity of BulBul, laureate of the State award of USSR. Adila has been the preserver and active propagandist of BulBul's heritage for over 40 years. She initiated the establishment of memorial museums of Bulbul in Baku and Shusha. Unfortunately, Armenian aggressors occupied Shusha in 1992 and ruined Bulbul's memorial museum.
    She was the author of a book and articles about the life and creative activity of Bulbul. She was deserved Presidential grant for her activity in 2002.

    Rauf Hadjiyev (15.05.1922-19.09.1995)
    Rauf Hadjiyev was a composer and a popular artist of USSR (1978). He made a great contribution to the development of musical comedy in Azerbaijan.
    His operettas "Romeo is my neighbor" (1960), "Cuba, my love" (1963), "Don't hide your smile" (1969), "The fourth column" (1973), "Mummy, I'm going to marry" (1976), "Crossroad" (1981) became widely famous. He created a number of symphonic compositions, oratorios, cantatas and songs. Among the latter the most famous are "Sevgilim" ("My love"), "Leyla", "Bahar gelir" ("Spring is nearing"), "Baku", "Azerbaijan".

    Shovket Alekberova (20.10.1922 - 07.02.1993)
    Shovket Alekperova was a songstress and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1959). She got her education at the Baku school of music after Zeynally-the class of H.Sarabski.
    In 1938-1945 she worked with the Azerbaijan State Ensemble of Songs and Dances and in 1945 was the soloist of the Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society after M.Magomayev.
    Mugams ("Segah", "Qatar", "Shahnaz", etc) and folklore songs dominated his repertoire.

    Fikret Amirov (22.11.1922 - 20.02.1984)
    Fikret Amirov was a great composer and a popular artist of USST (1965). He graduated from the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire in 1948 (the class of B. Zeydman).
    He was a founder of a genre of symphonic mugam ("Shur", "Kurd ovhsry" -1948, "Gulustan-Bayaty-Shiraz"-1971), opera "Sevil" (1953), ballet "One thousand and one night"(1973) and symphony "Nizami" for string orchestra (1948).
    "Azerbaijan capriccio" (1961), "Symphonic dances" (1963), oriental concert for fortepiano and orchestra (1957, conjointly with E.Nazirova) occupy an important place in her creative activity.

    Tukezban Ismayilova (21.12.1923)
    Tukezban Ismatilova is a songstress and a popular artist of Azerbaijan (1993). She graduated from the Baku Technical College of Music after A.Zeynally the class of H.Sarabski in 1940. In period of the World War Second she delivered concerts within a propaganda team. T.Ismayilova was the soloist of the Azerbaijan State Philharmonic Society and Chrus of Azerbaijan Radio Broadcasting.
    Creations and folklore songs of Azeri composers ("Beauty of Kurd", "Black-eyed", etc) occupied an important place in her repertoire and she performed mugams ("A Train", "Heyraty", "Shahnaz", "Segah") with a great mastery. Tukezban gave up her creative work after the death of Habib Bayramov, popular artist of the Republic, accompanying her on tar, whom she loved with all her heart and soul. She has been teaching mugam at the Gymnasium of Art since 1985. In 1998 she was conferred with the Order of Honor of the Azerbaijan Republic.

    Shafiga Akhundova (21.01.1924)
    Shafiga Akhundova is a composer and a popular artist of the Azerbaijan Republic (1998).During the years of study (1943-1944) at the Baku School of Music after A.Zeynally she was trained by U.Hadjibeyov while in 1956 she graduated from the Azerbaijan State Conservatoire. In 1972 she composed opera "Maiden Rock" thus becoming the first woman to create opera in the entire East.
    Shafiga is the author of wonderful songs ("Leyla", "Bekhtiyar eller" ("Happy Land"), operetta "Ev bizim, sirr bizim" (1965), pieces for string quartet , dramatic plays ("Aydin", "Farewell to India!" "What do you live for?" etc) and music to children's plays "A tale of a clown", "Birthday of a rabbit", etc). His lyrical songs and romances, composed on words of Azeri poets are very popular among people. Shafiga still composes her music and creates composition with love.
  • I saw him

    4 Jul 2006, 19:10 by afzilla

    woohoo
    I saw Immortal Technique and hes a legend.

    Viva la revolucion

    Oh and Poisonous Poets were also awesome.

    And how could i forget, surprise apperance Faith SFX stole the show with his violin beatbox rendition of Dance With the Devil

  • Immortal Technique coming to the UK!!

    28 Jun 2006, 16:30 by afzilla

    w000000000000000t!

    I'll see you there.

    Immortal Technique, ya hear.