Mannheim & First Viennese School

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Créé le : 15 jui. 2009
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The end of Baroque Music and the beginning of Classical Music. Mannheim School and First Viennese School. Also: Style Galant, Empfindsamer Stil, Rococo & Sturm und Drang music. From 1720 until 1780.

Mannheim Palace in Baden-Württemberg, Germany

The emergence of the Rococo style had been in many respects a revolt against the more severe forms of the earlier Baroque music. At the same time, although Italian music and musicians were still dominant in the field of opera, all through Northern Europe a number of local schools, particularly in the field of instrumental music, arose around the middle of the eighteenth century. Paris was the centre of music in Northern Europe, but other, equally important, schools flourished in London (where J. C. Bach was soon to become the leading composer), Mannheim (where a series of Bohemian musicians were gradually establishing a new orchestral technique), Berlin (which remained rather old-fashioned in its tastes, and where C. P. E. Bach first began to write his major works before moving to Hamburg), and Vienna. As matters turned out, Vienna and the surrounding Austrian empire became the geographical centre for the emergence of a new school which has in the course of time acquired the name "Viennese Classical Style."

The second half of the 18th century brought many new developments. Out of the suite grew the popular serenade, and from that the more fastidious string quartet. In solo song the later Berlin School completed the return to nature, and stressed the popular element. Bach's sons, especially Carl Philipp Emanuel (died 1788) reflect the passionate "Sturm und Drang" movement, particularly in keyboard music. In a similar manner the Mannheim School furthered the development of modern symphonic art. Gluck (died 1787) led Italian and French opera towards a new truth of dramatic expression, whilst the "Singspiel," the German form of comic opera, began to flourish. The authority of Haydn (died 1809) and Mozart (died 1791) was recognized as the classical style grew out of the "Sturm und Drang" and as an early forerunner of the romantic period the "Biedermeier" developed from the sentimentality of the late "Galant" style.


Composers of the Mannheim school introduced a number of novel ideas into the orchestral music of their day: sudden crescendos – the Mannheim Crescendo or (a crescendo developed via the whole orchestra) – and decrescendos; crescendos with piano releases; the Mannheim Rocket (an extended crescendo passage typically having a rising melodic line over an ostinato bass line); the Mannheim Sigh (a mannered treatment of the Baroque practice of putting more weight on the first of two notes in descending pairs of slurred notes); the Mannheim Birds (imitation of birds chirping in solo passages) and the Grand Pause where the playing stops for a moment, resulting in total silence, only to restart vigorously. The Mannheim Rocket is a series of rapidly ascending broken chords from the lowest range of the bass line to the very top of the soprano line. Its influence can be found at the beginning of the 4th movement of Mozart's Symphony No. 40 as well as the very start of Beethoven's Piano Sonata No. 1 in F minor, Op. 2, No. 1.


Connected composers (82): Jean-Joseph Cassanéa de Mondonville, Vincenzo Righini, François Devienne, Florian Leopold Gassmann, André Danican Philidor, Johann Christian Fischer, Johann Gottlieb Naumann, Giovanni Benedetto Platti, Michele Stratico, Domenico dall'Oglio, Antonio Lolli, Pietro Nardini, Ernst Wilhelm Wolf, Domenico Cimarosa, Carl Friedrich Abel, Nicola Porpora, Alessandro Marcello, Benedetto Marcello, Domenico Gallo, Andrea Luchesi, William Herschel, Carles Baguer, Francois-Joseph Gossec, Baldassare Galuppi, Giovanni Battista Sammartini, Thomas Augustine Arne, William Boyce, Francesco Maria Veracini, Antonio Vivaldi, Pietro Antonio Locatelli, Gottfried August Homilius, Anton Stadler, Johannes Matthias Sperger, Wenceslaus Wodiczka, František Ignác Antonín Tůma, Georg Philipp Telemann, Jean-Philippe Rameau, Domenico Scarlatti, Josef Mysliveček, Leopold Kozeluch, Luigi Boccherini, Antonio Rosetti, František Xaver Dušek, Anton Stamitz, Carl Stamitz, Johann Baptist Wendling, Jean-Baptiste Krumpholtz, Carl Joseph Toeschi, Ludwig August Lebrun, Anton Fils, Anton Zimmermann, Johann Adolf Hasse, Franz Anton Hoffmeister, Christoph Willibald Gluck, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Johann Georg Pisendel, Johann Friedrich Fasch, Vaclav Pichl, Paul Wranitzky, Joseph Martin Kraus, Ignace Joseph Pleyel, Antonio Salieri, Josef Starzer, Franz Ignaz Beck, Carl Ditters von Dittersdorf, Wilhelm Friedemann Bach, Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach, Johann Christian Bach, Georg Matthias Monn, Michael Haydn, Georg Christoph Wagenseil, Johann Georg Albrechtsberger, Leopold Mozart, Ignaz Holzbauer, Franz Xaver Richter, Franz Joseph Haydn, Leopold Hofmann, Jiří Antonín Benda, Johann Joachim Quantz, Johann Baptist Vanhal, Christian Cannabich, Johann Stamitz

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